The textile heritage signifies the power of expressions of the fabrics. They make up a sensitive, both tactile and visual, world. The ways fabrics are produced, their patterns, their different texture, are means of communication and behavior. It is a universe of professional knowledge and gesture passed on from one generation to another, both literally and metaphorically. At the same time it is a universe of longing for the artistic perfection, the almost inexhaustible range of fabrics having proved their esthetic qualities for centuries. Moreover, fabrics represent the reflex of a society, they indicate changes that have occurred in raw materials, techniques, dyes. They reveal human way of dressing and living, lingering traditional mentalities but also new fashion trends. In this context Transylvania proves its coherence and amplitude. On the one hand, there is a powerful domestic textile industry which has developed for centuries within the traditional rural economy which employed old procedures and simple machines. On the other hand, in the more refined surroundings of the Transylvanian towns, the existence of textile of guilds (thick cloth makers and sharers, canvas makers, dyers, tailors, carpet makers) broadens and diversifies the range of handicraft industry. Thus, technical progresses in fabrics manufacturing which had already been put into practice in Central Europe, were recorded here. At the beginning of the 20 th century, new manufacturing enterprises appear and the efficiency of the guilds improves with the introduction of the mechanical spinning machine, of new dyeing procedures and especially of the Jacquard weaving loom. The local traditions concerning the weaving art are still in use in the spinning milks and cloth factories, which use up-to-date, highly efficient weaving looms.